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HTML Coding basics

Posted by Mohsin On 6/06/2012 10:48:00 PM 1 comment

HTML Coding basics

Some online-publishing tools are so simple that you can post a blog without ever encountering an angle bracket. Still, learning even a smidgeon of basic HTML will give you a lot of control over your content. You can ensure that the text follows your style rules (for italics or quotation marks, for instance), and you can find formatting bugs when you view a page’s source code.
HTML is a series of instructions (code) that tell webpage-viewing tools like browsers how to render your page. HTML tells Web browsers where to place graphics, which typeface and color the text should be, how to lay out columns, which page a link should take the user to when the link is clicked, and so on.
Most webpages are built using HTML, which stands for Hypertext Markup Language. The HTML “marks up” the textual and graphical content of a page, using devices such as “tags” to tell a browser how to display the content.
Example
Text marked up with HTML
Do <strong>not</strong> use the Housekeeper 3000 robot for this purpose.
Text as the browser displays it
Do not use the Housekeeper 3000 robot for this purpose.
(The <strong> tag instructs the browser to place emphasis on the word “not”; usually the word will appear in boldface type. A “voice browser,” or screen reader, may use a different tone when reading “not.”)

Anatomy of a webpage

You can see the HTML “instructions” for any webpage by looking at the page’s source code. For example, in Mozilla Firefox 3.0, go to the webpage you want to examine, click the View menu, and choose Page Source. You will see a daunting pageful of code. But once you know what to look for, you may be surprised at how easy it is to understand.
Tags tell the browser what to do. The page probably has at or near the top an “open tag” that looks like this: <html>. That tag tells the browser, “Start interpreting HTML now, and don’t stop until you get a command to stop interpreting HTML.”
Now scroll to the bottom of all that code. At or near the end of the page you’ll see a “close tag” that looks like this: </html>. It tells the browser, “Stop interpreting HTML now.” A close tag has a forward slash (/) after the opening angle bracket (<) but otherwise matches its corresponding open tag.

Examples of common tags include:
Open tag
Close tag
Effect
<h1>
</h1>
Text between these tags appears as a top-level headline.
<em>
</em>
Text between these tags is emphasized and usually appears in italics.
<strong>
</strong>
Text between these tags is strongly emphasized and usually appears in boldface.

Although much of HTML works on the “open tag, close tag” principle, a few open tags don’t have corresponding close tags. For example, the line-break tag <br> has none. However, XHTML, a reformulation of HTML that some websites use, does require a close tag for every open tag—even for tags such as <br>. So, for tags that in HTML have no close tag, a person using XHTML must add a space and a slash so that the tag will “self-close.”
Example
In HTML
Ring around the rosy,<br>
A pocket full of posies;<br>
In XHTML
Ring around the rosy,<br />
A pocket full of posies;<br />
The following example shows some simple HTML in action.
Example  
<html> <head> <title>This Is the Text That Appears in a Browser's Title Bar</title> <meta name="description" content="This page illustrates some basic HTML markup in action. (This description may appear, along with the title above, in search results listings.)"> </head>
<body> <h1>This is a top-level heading, or headline</h1> <p>This is the first paragraph appearing under the headline.</p> <p>This is another paragraph, with <strong>this part of it in boldface type.</strong></p> <p>This is another paragraph, with <em>this part in italic.</em></p>

<body> <h1>This is a top-level heading, or headline</h1> <p>This is the first paragraph appearing under the headline.</p> <p>This is another paragraph, with <strong>this part of it in boldface type.</strong></p> <p>This is another paragraph, with <em>this part in italic.</em></p>
<blockquote>Let's say your block quote is a poem<br> One with short lines, so short<br> You need line-break tags to break them.</blockquote>

This code is creating a bulleted (unnumbered) list: <ul> <li>First bullet point</li> <li>Second bullet point</li> <li>Third bullet point</li> </ul>
This code is creating a numbered list: <ol> <li>First item in the list</li> <li>Second item in the list</li> <li>Third item in the list</li> </ol>

<h3>This is a tertiary heading</h3> <p>Here is a paragraph to tell you that the code below is for an image. The image source tag (img src) tells the browser where on your computer or on the Web to find the image in order to display it; the width and height numbers tell the browser how big a space the picture will require on the page, and the alt text is there to fill the space in case the image doesn't appear (the alt text will also be read by screen-reading software used by people who can't see images).</p>
<img src="picture.jpg" width="534" height="800" alt="This is the alt text that appears if the image doesn't load.">
<p>This is the last paragraph on the page. So, following the end paragraph tag are a close tag to tell the browser that this is the end of the "body" of the page and then a close tag to tell the browser that this is the end of this HTML page altogether.</p> </body> </html>


Sample HTML in FirefoxA screenshot showing how the sample HTML page appears in a Firefox browser

How to mark up copy

Following is a quick primer on how to format some basic elements in HTML. But before you incorporate any tags into your copy, check with your site administrator or producer to find out which tags your content-publishing system requires.
TIP
To comply with XHTML rules, lowercase the tags: Use <strong>, not <STRONG>. In addition, if multiple tags apply to one piece of text, the tags must be properly “nested” inside each other: If an open tag begins inside another set of tags, that tag must also end inside that other set of tags. For example, here an <em> tag begins inside a set of <p> tags, so it must also end inside the set of <p> tags: <p>This sentence with one word <em>emphasized</em></p> is correctly nested. <p>This sentence with one word <em>emphasized</p></em> is not correctly nested.
Paragraphs and line breaks
Insert a <p> tag when you want to begin a new paragraph. The closing </p> tag is required in XHTML, and it doesn’t hurt to use it in HTML—so you might as well use it. 

Example                                                                                                                                                  

<p>Tuscany, schmuscany. If you're looking for simple yet flavorful, rustic yet sophisticated Italian cuisine with a focus on fresh ingredients, try a taste of Sicily.</p>
<p>Invaded time and again by a procession of settlers and conquerors, the island of Sicily has been fought over and occupied by Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Berbers, Spanish Muslims, and Normans, not to mention Barbarians and Vandals. The legacy of this tortuous history is a cuisine rich in delicious diversity.</p>
 To force a line to break at a particular point, insert a <br> tag. But use a self-closing <br /> tag if your website uses XHTML.
Example
HTML
Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?<br>
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.<br>
XHTML

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?<br />
Thou art more lovely and more temperate.<br />
Links
To create a link to another page on your site or to a page on another site, use the “hyperlink reference” or “href” anchor tag (the a at the beginning and end of the code stands for anchor): <a href="URL goes here">Text to be linked goes here</a>.

TIP

Notice the quotation marks around the URL: It’s important to put the name of the URL in quotes, but make sure they’re straight quotes (" "), not smart ones (“ ”). Never use smart (also called curly) quotes in code.
Example
Marked-up text
Learn how to make Sicilian specialties in your own kitchen, including savory <a href="siteURL/street-snacks">street snacks</a>, <a href="siteURL/palermoseafood">Palermo-style seafood</a>, and irresistible <a href="siteURL/siciliandesserts">desserts</a> such as cannoli.
Displayed text
Learn how to make Sicilian specialties in your own kitchen, including savory street snacks, Palermo-style seafood, and irresistible desserts such as cannoli.
Bulleted and numbered lists
To create a bulleted list (or unordered list, which is what the ul in the code stands for), use the following code:
<ul>
<li>First bullet point</li>
<li>Second bullet point</li>
<li>Third bullet point</li>
</ul>

TIP

It may help to remember that li stands for list item.
An example of a bulleted list
A screenshot showing how the bulleted list example appears in a browser
To create a numbered list (or ordered list, which is what the ol stands for), use this code:
<ol>
<li>First item in the list</li>
<li>Second item in the list</li>
<li>Third item in the list</li>
</ol>
An example of a numbered list
A screenshot showing how the numbered list example appears in a browser
Block quotation
Sometimes you may want to display text—a long quote, for example—as an indented “extract,” or “block text.” Use the <blockquote> tag around the text you want indented.

Example

<p>In this passage from what is perhaps her best-known book, Jane Austen's writing shines:</p>
<blockquote>More than once did Elizabeth, in her ramble within the park, unexpectedly meet Mr. Darcy. She felt all the perverseness of the mischance that should bring him where no one else was brought, and, to prevent its ever happening again, took care to inform him at first that it was a favourite haunt of hers. How it could occur a second time, therefore, was very odd!</blockquote>

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